Category Archives: Dolor

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Self-initiated use of topical cannabidiol oil for epidermolysis bullosa.

Category : Dolor

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Self-initiated use of topical cannabidiol oil for epidermolysis bullosa.

Pediatr Dermatol. 2018 May 22;:

Authors: Chelliah MP, Zinn Z, Khuu P, Teng JMC

Abstract
Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare blistering skin disorder that is challenging to manage because skin fragility and repeated wound healing cause itching, pain, limited mobility, and recurrent infections. Cannabidiol, an active cannabinoid found in cannabis, is postulated to have antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. We report 3 cases of self-initiated topical cannabidiol use in patients with epidermolysis bullosa in an observational study. One patient was weaned completely off oral opioid analgesics. All 3 reported faster wound healing, less blistering, and amelioration of pain with cannabidiol use. Although these results demonstrate promise, further randomized, double-blind clinical trials are necessary to provide scientific evidence of our observed benefits of cannabidiol for the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa.

PMID: 29786144 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice.

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The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) attenuates pro-inflammatory mediators, T cell infiltration, and thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury in mice.

Cell Immunol. 2018 Mar 08;:

Authors: Li H, Kong W, Chambers CR, Yu D, Ganea D, Tuma RF, Ward SJ

Abstract
We evaluated the effects of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) on the inflammatory response and recovery of function following spinal cord injury (SCI). Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to spinal cord contusion injury (T9-10) and received vehicle or CBD (1.5 mg/kg IP) injections for 10 weeks following injury. The effect of SCI and CBD treatment on inflammation was assessed via microarray, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Locomotor and bladder function and changes in thermal and mechanical hind paw sensitivity were also evaluated. There was a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with T-cell differentiation and invasion in the SCI-CBD group as well as a decrease in T cell invasion into the injured cord. A higher percentage of SCI mice in the vehicle-treated group (SCI-VEH) went on to develop moderate to severe (0-65.9% baseline thermal threshold) thermal sensitivity as compared with CBD-treated (SCI-CBD) mice. CBD did not affect recovery of locomotor or bladder function following SCI. Taken together, CBD treatment attenuated the development of thermal sensitivity following spinal cord injury and this effect may be related to protection against pathological T-cell invasion.

PMID: 29784129 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Efficacy of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

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Efficacy of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Pain Physician. 2017 Sep;20(6):E755-E796

Authors: Aviram J, Samuelly-Leichtag G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The management of chronic pain is a complex challenge worldwide. Cannabis-based medicines (CBMs) have proven to be efficient in reducing chronic pain, although the topic remains highly controversial in this field.
OBJECTIVES: This study’s aim is to conduct a conclusive review and meta-analysis, which incorporates all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to update clinicians’ and researchers’ knowledge regarding the efficacy and adverse events (AEs) of CBMs for chronic and postoperative pain treatment.
STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS: An electronic search was conducted using Medline/Pubmed and Google Scholar with the use of Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms on all literature published up to July 2015. A follow-up manual search was conducted and included a complete cross-check of the relevant studies. The included studies were RCTs which compared the analgesic effects of CBMs to placebo. Hedges’s g scores were calculated for each of the studies. A study quality assessment was performed utilizing the Jadad scale. A meta-analysis was performed utilizing random-effects models and heterogeneity between studies was statistically computed using I² statistic and tau² test.
RESULTS: The results of 43 RCTs (a total of 2,437 patients) were included in this review, of which 24 RCTs (a total of 1,334 patients) were eligible for meta-analysis. This analysis showed limited evidence showing more pain reduction in chronic pain -0.61 (-0.78 to -0.43, P < 0.0001), especially by inhalation -0.93 (-1.51 to -0.35, P = 0.001) compared to placebo. Moreover, even though this review consisted of some RCTs that showed a clinically significant improvement with a decrease of pain scores of 2 points or more, 30% or 50% or more, the majority of the studies did not show an effect. Consequently, although the primary analysis showed that the results were favorable to CBMs over placebo, the clinical significance of these findings is uncertain. The most prominent AEs were related to the central nervous and the gastrointestinal (GI) systems.
LIMITATIONS: Publication limitation could have been present due to the inclusion of English-only published studies. Additionally, the included studies were extremely heterogeneous. Only 7 studies reported on the patients’ history of prior consumption of CBMs. Furthermore, since cannabinoids are surrounded by considerable controversy in the media and society, cannabinoids have marked effects, so that inadequate blinding of the placebo could constitute an important source of limitation in these types of studies.
CONCLUSIONS: The current systematic review suggests that CBMs might be effective for chronic pain treatment, based on limited evidence, primarily for neuropathic pain (NP) patients. Additionally, GI AEs occurred more frequently when CBMs were administered via oral/oromucosal routes than by inhalation.Key words: Cannabis, CBMs, chronic pain, postoperative pain, review, meta-analysis.

PMID: 28934780 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids.

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Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids.

Surg Neurol Int. 2018;9:91

Authors: Maroon J, Bost J

Abstract
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS.
Methods: In 1980, Cunha et al. reported anticonvulsant benefits in 7/8 subjects with medically uncontrolled epilepsy using marijuana extracts in a phase I clinical trial. Since then neurological applications have been the major focus of renewed research using medical marijuana and phytocannabinoid extracts.
Results: Recent neurological uses include adjunctive treatment for malignant brain tumors, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, and the childhood seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes. In addition, psychiatric and mood disorders, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, addiction, postconcussion syndrome, and posttraumatic stress disorders are being studied using phytocannabinoids.
Conclusions: In this review we will provide animal and human research data on the current clinical neurological uses for CBD individually and in combination with Δ9-THC. We will emphasize the neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory benefits of phytocannabinoids and their applications in various clinical syndromes.

PMID: 29770251 [PubMed]

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Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders.

Category : Dolor

Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders.

J Child Neurol. 2018 Jan 01;:883073818773028

Authors: Libzon S, Schleider LB, Saban N, Levit L, Tamari Y, Linder I, Lerman-Sagie T, Blumkin L

Abstract
A complex motor disorder is a combination of various types of abnormal movements that are associated with impaired quality of life (QOL). Current therapeutic options are limited. We studied the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of medical cannabis in children with complex motor disorder. This pilot study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Two products of cannabidiol (CBD) enriched 5% oil formulation of cannabis were compared: one with 0.25% δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 20:1 group, the other with 0.83% THC 6:1 group. Patients aged 1 to 17 years (n = 25) with complex motor disorder were enrolled. The assigned medication was administered for 5 months. Significant improvement in spasticity and dystonia, sleep difficulties, pain severity, and QOL was observed in the total study cohort, regardless of treatment assignment. Adverse effects were rare and included worsening of seizures in 2 patients, behavioral changes in 2 and somnolence in 1.

PMID: 29766748 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for use of cannabinoids to relieve pain in patients with malignant diseases.

Category : Dolor

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Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for use of cannabinoids to relieve pain in patients with malignant diseases.

J Pain Res. 2018;11:837-842

Authors: Darkovska-Serafimovska M, Serafimovska T, Arsova-Sarafinovska Z, Stefanoski S, Keskovski Z, Balkanov T

Abstract
Purpose: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of cannabis preparations for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases, through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were predominantly double-blind trials that compared cannabis preparation to a placebo.
Methods: An electronic search of all literature published until June 2017 was made in MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and specific web pages devoted to cannabis.
Results: Fifteen of the 18 trials demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoids as compared to placebo. The most commonly reported adverse effects were generally well tolerated, mild to moderate. The main side effects were drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and dry mouth. There is evidence that cannabinoids are safe and modestly effective in neuropathic pain and also for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases. The proportion of “responders” (patients who at the end of 2 weeks of treatment reported ≥30% reduction in pain intensity on a scale of 0-10, which is considered to be clinically important) was 43% in comparison with placebo (21%).
Conclusion: The target dose for relieving pain in patients with malignant diseases is most likely about 10 actuations per day, which is about 27 mg tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 25 mg cannabidiol (CBD), and the highest approved recommended dose is 12 actuations per day (32 mg THC/30 mg CBD). Further large studies of cannabinoids in homogeneous populations are required.

PMID: 29719417 [PubMed]

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Sativex® effects on promoter methylation and on CNR1/CNR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

Category : Dolor

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Sativex® effects on promoter methylation and on CNR1/CNR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

J Neurol Sci. 2017 Aug 15;379:298-303

Authors: Santoro M, Mirabella M, De Fino C, Bianco A, Lucchini M, Losavio F, Sabino A, Nociti V

Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disease that involve oligodendrocyte loss and failure to remyelinate damaged brain areas causing a progressive neurological disability. Studies in MS mouse model suggest that cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms as spasticity, tremor and pain reducing inflammation via cannabinoid-mediated system. The aim of our study is to investigate the changes in cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1) and 2 (CNR2) receptors mRNA expression levels and promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS secondary progressive (MSS-SP) patients treated with Sativex®. Our cohort included MSS-SP patients, that at the time of Sativex® treatment, are treated (n=7), not treated (n=11) or that had terminated interferon-β-1b (IFN-β-1b) therapy (n=12). By Methylation Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM), we characterized the methylation profile of CNR1 and CNR2 promoter region, while the relative mRNA transcript levels of these two genes were evaluated in the same samples by Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. We did not find different pattern of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation in the CNR1/CNR2 promoter region of all MSS-SP patients treated with Sativex®. In addition, CNR1 and CNR2 expression did not significantly differ in MSS-SP patients not treated with IFN-β-1b vs. them that have suspended, while in MSS-SP patients treated with IFN-β-1b during Sativex® therapy we found a specific decrease of the CNR2 expression levels. These results suggest that the different expression of cannabinoid receptors by Sativex® treatment in leukocytes might be regulated through a molecular mechanism that involve interferon modulation.

PMID: 28716266 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay.

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Chronic Pain Treatment With Cannabidiol in Kidney Transplant Patients in Uruguay.

Transplant Proc. 2018 Mar;50(2):461-464

Authors: Cuñetti L, Manzo L, Peyraube R, Arnaiz J, Curi L, Orihuela S

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a major therapeutic problem in kidney transplant patients owing to nephrotoxicity associated with nonsteroidal antiiflammatory drugs. Benefits in chronic pain treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) have been reported. This study assesses the effect, safety, and possible drug interactions in kidney transplant patients treated with CBD for chronic pain.
METHODS: We assessed patients who asked to receive CBD for pain treatment. Doses were increased from 50 to 150 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Creatinine, blood count, liver function, liver enzymes, and drug levels were determined every 48 hours the first week and then once a week thereafter.
RESULTS: We assessed 7 patients with a mean age of 64.5 years (range, 58-75 years). CBD initial dose was 100 mg/d, CBD dose reduction to 50 mg/d has been done on day 4 to patient 1 for persistent nausea. Tacrolimus dose reduction in patient 3 was undertaken on days 4, 7, and 21 owing to persisting elevated levels (even before CBD) and itching, and on day 21 in patient 5. Tacrolimus levels decreased in patient 2 but were normal in the control 1 week later. Patients on cyclosporine were stable. Adverse effects were nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, drowsiness, and intermittent episodes of heat. CBD dose decrease was required in 2 patients. Two patients had total pain improvement, 4 had a partial response in the first 15 days, and in 1 there was no change.
CONCLUSIONS: During this follow-up, CBD was well-tolerated, and there were no severe adverse effects. Plasma levels of tacrolimus were variable. Therefore, longer follow-up is required.

PMID: 29579828 [PubMed – in process]

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Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

Category : Dolor

Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 07;3:CD012182

Authors: Mücke M, Phillips T, Radbruch L, Petzke F, Häuser W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Estimates of the population prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic components range between 6% and 10%. Current pharmacological treatment options for neuropathic pain afford substantial benefit for only a few people, often with adverse effects that outweigh the benefits. There is a need to explore other treatment options, with different mechanisms of action for treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain. Cannabis has been used for millennia to reduce pain. Herbal cannabis is currently strongly promoted by some patients and their advocates to treat any type of chronic pain.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabis-based medicines (herbal, plant-derived, synthetic) compared to placebo or conventional drugs for conditions with chronic neuropathic pain in adults.
SEARCH METHODS: In November 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trials registries for published and ongoing trials, and examined the reference lists of reviewed articles.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomised, double-blind controlled trials of medical cannabis, plant-derived and synthetic cannabis-based medicines against placebo or any other active treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain in adults, with a treatment duration of at least two weeks and at least 10 participants per treatment arm.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently extracted data of study characteristics and outcomes of efficacy, tolerability and safety, examined issues of study quality, and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. For efficacy, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for pain relief of 30% and 50% or greater, patient’s global impression to be much or very much improved, dropout rates due to lack of efficacy, and the standardised mean differences for pain intensity, sleep problems, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychological distress. For tolerability, we calculated number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for withdrawal due to adverse events and specific adverse events, nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. For safety, we calculated NNTH for serious adverse events. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE and created a ‘Summary of findings’ table.
MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies with 1750 participants. The studies were 2 to 26 weeks long and compared an oromucosal spray with a plant-derived combination of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) (10 studies), a synthetic cannabinoid mimicking THC (nabilone) (two studies), inhaled herbal cannabis (two studies) and plant-derived THC (dronabinol) (two studies) against placebo (15 studies) and an analgesic (dihydrocodeine) (one study). We used the Cochrane ‘Risk of bias’ tool to assess study quality. We defined studies with zero to two unclear or high risks of bias judgements to be high-quality studies, with three to five unclear or high risks of bias to be moderate-quality studies, and with six to eight unclear or high risks of bias to be low-quality studies. Study quality was low in two studies, moderate in 12 studies and high in two studies. Nine studies were at high risk of bias for study size. We rated the quality of the evidence according to GRADE as very low to moderate.Primary outcomesCannabis-based medicines may increase the number of people achieving 50% or greater pain relief compared with placebo (21% versus 17%; risk difference (RD) 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00 to 0.09); NNTB 20 (95% CI 11 to 100); 1001 participants, eight studies, low-quality evidence). We rated the evidence for improvement in Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) with cannabis to be of very low quality (26% versus 21%;RD 0.09 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17); NNTB 11 (95% CI 6 to 100); 1092 participants, six studies). More participants withdrew from the studies due to adverse events with cannabis-based medicines (10% of participants) than with placebo (5% of participants) (RD 0.04 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07); NNTH 25 (95% CI 16 to 50); 1848 participants, 13 studies, moderate-quality evidence). We did not have enough evidence to determine if cannabis-based medicines increase the frequency of serious adverse events compared with placebo (RD 0.01 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.03); 1876 participants, 13 studies, low-quality evidence).Secondary outcomesCannabis-based medicines probably increase the number of people achieving pain relief of 30% or greater compared with placebo (39% versus 33%; RD 0.09 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.15); NNTB 11 (95% CI 7 to 33); 1586 participants, 10 studies, moderate quality evidence). Cannabis-based medicines may increase nervous system adverse events compared with placebo (61% versus 29%; RD 0.38 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.58); NNTH 3 (95% CI 2 to 6); 1304 participants, nine studies, low-quality evidence). Psychiatric disorders occurred in 17% of participants using cannabis-based medicines and in 5% using placebo (RD 0.10 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.15); NNTH 10 (95% CI 7 to 16); 1314 participants, nine studies, low-quality evidence).We found no information about long-term risks in the studies analysed.Subgroup analysesWe are uncertain whether herbal cannabis reduces mean pain intensity (very low-quality evidence). Herbal cannabis and placebo did not differ in tolerability (very low-quality evidence).
AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: The potential benefits of cannabis-based medicine (herbal cannabis, plant-derived or synthetic THC, THC/CBD oromucosal spray) in chronic neuropathic pain might be outweighed by their potential harms. The quality of evidence for pain relief outcomes reflects the exclusion of participants with a history of substance abuse and other significant comorbidities from the studies, together with their small sample sizes.

PMID: 29513392 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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