Category Archives: Antiinflamatorio

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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of grossamide from hemp seed via suppression of TLR-4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of grossamide from hemp seed via suppression of TLR-4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Mol Cell Biochem. 2017 Apr;428(1-2):129-137

Authors: Luo Q, Yan X, Bobrovskaya L, Ji M, Yuan H, Lou H, Fan P

Abstract
Grossamide, a representative lignanamide in hemp seed, has been reported to possess potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action of grossamide are still unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of grossamide against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of grossamide before being stimulated with LPS to induce inflammation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time PCR. The translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and contribution of TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation on inflammatory effects were evaluated by immunostaining and Western blot analysis. This study demonstrated that grossamide significantly inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and decreased the level of LPS-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. In addition, it significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB subunit p65 in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus. Furthermore, grossamide markedly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Taken together, these data suggest that grossamide could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inhibiting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID: 28224333 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn's Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn’s Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Mar 27;:

Authors: Naftali T, Mechulam R, Marii A, Gabay G, Stein A, Bronshtain M, Laish I, Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid shown to be beneficial in a mouse model of IBD. Lacking any central effect, cannabidiol is an attractive option for treating inflammatory diseases.
AIM: To assess the effects of cannabidiol on Crohn’s disease in a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients aged 18-75 years with a Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) >200 were randomized to receive oral (10 mg) CBD or placebo twice daily. Patients did not respond to standard treatment with steroids (11 patients), thiopurines (14), or TNF antagonists (11). Disease activity and laboratory parameters were assessed during 8 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks thereafter. Other medical treatment remained unchanged.
RESULTS: Of 20 patients recruited 19 completed the study. Their mean age was 39 ± 15, and 11 were males. The average CDAI before cannabidiol consumption was 337 ± 108 and 308 ± 96 (p = NS) in the CBD and placebo groups, respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, the index was 220 ± 122 and 216 ± 121 in the CBD and placebo groups, respectively (p = NS). Hemoglobin, albumin, and kidney and liver function tests remained unchanged. No side effects were observed.
CONCLUSION: In this study of moderately active Crohn’s disease, CBD was safe but had no beneficial effects. This could be due to lack of effect of CBD on Crohn’s disease, but could also be due to the small dose of CBD, the small number of patients in the study, or the lack of the necessary synergism with other cannabinoids. Further investigation is warranted. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01037322.

PMID: 28349233 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Cannabis for Pain and Headaches: Primer.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Cannabis for Pain and Headaches: Primer.

Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2017 Apr;21(4):19

Authors: Kim PS, Fishman MA

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research.
RECENT FINDINGS: Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting. Nabiximols is a cannabis extract that is approved for the treatment of spasticity and intractable pain in Canada and the UK. Further clinical trials are studying the effect of marijuana extracts for seizure disorders. Phytocannabinoids have been identified as key compounds involved in analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects. Other compounds found in cannabis such as flavonoids and terpenes are also being investigated as to their individual or synergistic effects. This article will review relevant literature regarding medical use of marijuana and cannabinoid pharmaceuticals with an emphasis on pain and headaches.

PMID: 28281107 [PubMed – in process]

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Chronic low-grade peripheral inflammation is associated with severe nicotine dependence in schizophrenia: results from the national multicentric FACE-SZ cohort.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Chronic low-grade peripheral inflammation is associated with severe nicotine dependence in schizophrenia: results from the national multicentric FACE-SZ cohort.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017 Feb 25;:

Authors: Fond G, Berna F, Andrianarisoa M, Godin O, Leboyer M, Brunel L, Aouizerate B, Capdevielle D, Chereau I, D’Amato T, Denizot H, Dubertret C, Dubreucq J, Faget C, Gabayet F, Llorca PM, Mallet J, Misdrahi D, Passerieux C, Richieri R, Rey R, Schandrin A, Urbach M, Vidailhet P, Boyer L, Schürhoff F, FACE-SZ (FondaMental Academic Centers of Expertise for Schizophrenia) group

Abstract
Chronic peripheral inflammation (CPI) has been associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (SZ). However, its sources remain unclear, more specifically it is not known whether tobacco smoking is a source of inflammation or not in SZ subjects. Moreover, nicotine (NIC), the major psychoactive compound of tobacco, shows strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, as well as inducing a severe biological dependence when administered repeatedly. The objective of the present study was to determine if CPI was associated with tobacco smoking and/or NIC dependence in schizophrenia. Three hundred and forty five stabilized community-dwelling SZ subjects aged 16 years or older (mean age = 32 years, 73% male) were consecutively included in the network of the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. CPI was defined by a highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ≥3 mg/L. Current tobacco status was self-declared. Severe NIC dependence was defined by a Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score ≥7. Overall, 159 (46.1%) were non-smokers, 117 (33.9%) and 69 (20%) were current tobacco smokers with, respectively, low and severe nicotine dependence. In a multivariate model, CPI remained associated with severe NIC dependence (29 vs 15%, OR = 2.8, p = 0.003) and body mass index (OR = 1.1, p < 0.0001), independently of socio-demographic characteristics and antidepressant intake. No association of CPI with low to moderate tobacco smoking dependence, number of daily smoked cigarettes, cannabis use, alcohol use or illness characteristics was found (all p > 0.05). CPI was associated with severe NIC dependence but not with tobacco smoking with low to moderate NIC dependence in SZ, independently of socio-demographic variables, body mass index, alcohol consumption and antidepressant intake. This result highlights the potential CPI consequences of the high prevalence of heavy tobacco smoking in SZ, indicating the importance of new therapeutic strategies for tobacco cessation in SZ.

PMID: 28238173 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Feb 23;:

Authors: Osborne AL, Solowij N, Babic I, Huang XF, Weston-Green K

Abstract
Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties, however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were administered poly I:C (POLY; 4 mg/kg) or saline (CONT) at gestation day 15. Male offspring (PN56) were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg CBD (CONT+CBD, POLY+CBD; n=12/group) or vehicle (VEH; CONT+VEH, POLY+VEH; n=12/group) for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake was measured weekly. The Novel Object Recognition and rewarded T-maze alternation tests assessed recognition and working memory, respectively, and the social interaction test assessed sociability. POLY+VEH offspring exhibited impaired recognition and working memory and reduced social interaction compared to CONT+VEH offspring (p<0.01). CBD treatment significantly improved recognition, working memory and social interaction deficits in the poly I:C model (p<0.01 vs POLY+VEH), did not affect total body weight gain, food or water intake, and had no effect in control animals (all p>0.05). In conclusion, chronic CBD administration can attenuate the social interaction and cognitive deficits induced by prenatal poly I:C infection. These novel findings present interesting implications for potential use of CBD in treating the cognitive deficits and social withdrawal of schizophrenia.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 23 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.40.

PMID: 28230072 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer's Disease.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease.

Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:20

Authors: Watt G, Karl T

Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that is affecting an increasing number of people. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau hyperphosphorylation as well as neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for new, more effective therapeutics. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that has demonstrated neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro. Thus, it is investigated as a potential multifunctional treatment option for AD. Here, we summarize the current status quo of in vivo effects of CBD in established pharmacological and transgenic animal models for AD. The studies demonstrate the ability of CBD to reduce reactive gliosis and the neuroinflammatory response as well as to promote neurogenesis. Importantly, CBD also reverses and prevents the development of cognitive deficits in AD rodent models. Interestingly, combination therapies of CBD and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient of cannabis sativa, show that CBD can antagonize the psychoactive effects associated with THC and possibly mediate greater therapeutic benefits than either phytocannabinoid alone. The studies provide “proof of principle” that CBD and possibly CBD-THC combinations are valid candidates for novel AD therapies. Further investigations should address the long-term potential of CBD and evaluate mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects described.

PMID: 28217094 [PubMed – in process]

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Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Can cannabinoids be a potential therapeutic tool in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

Neural Regen Res. 2016 Dec;11(12):1896-1899

Authors: Giacoppo S, Mazzon E

Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common degenerative disease of the motor neuron system. Over the last years, a growing interest was aimed to discovery new innovative and safer therapeutic approaches in the ALS treatment. In this context, the bioactive compounds of Cannabis sativa have shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of central nervous system disease. However, most of the studies proving the ability of cannabinoids in delay disease progression and prolong survival in ALS were performed in animal model, whereas the few clinical trials that investigated cannabinoids-based medicines were focused only on the alleviation of ALS-related symptoms, not on the control of disease progression. The aim of this report was to provide a short but important overview of evidences that are useful to better characterize the efficacy as well as the molecular pathways modulated by cannabinoids.

PMID: 28197175 [PubMed – in process]

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Complementary Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Complementary Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2016 Dec;18(12):62

Authors: Yanai H, Salomon N, Lahat A

Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) often take a chronic debilitating course. Given the chronicity of IBD, the limitations of the available medications, their potential side effects, and the impact of the disease on patients’ quality of life, it is not surprising IBD patients are ranked among the highest users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Since CAM has become very popular in real-life practice of Western Communities, caregivers must gain more knowledge about these therapies, their mechanism of action, benefits, and risks. This article reviews and discusses up-to-date scientific and clinical data regarding the most prevalent herbal CAM therapies.

PMID: 27747459 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis: A Comprehensive Review.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Manipulation of the Endocannabinoid System in Colitis: A Comprehensive Review.

Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017 Jan 10;:

Authors: Leinwand KL, Gerich ME, Hoffenberg EJ, Collins CB

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease of the gastrointestinal tract whose annual incidence and prevalence is on the rise. Current immunosuppressive therapies available for treatment of IBD offer limited benefits and lose effectiveness, exposing a significant need for the development of novel therapies. In the clinical setting, cannabis has been shown to provide patients with IBD symptomatic relief, although the underlying mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory effects remain unclear.
METHODS: This review reflects our current understanding of how targeting the endocannabinoid system, including cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, endogenous cannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, atypical cannabinoids, and degrading enzymes including fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, impacts murine colitis. In addition, the impact of cannabinoids on the human immune system is summarized.
RESULTS: Cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, endogenous cannabinoids, and atypical cannabinoids are upregulated in inflammation, and their presence and stimulation attenuate murine colitis, whereas cannabinoid receptor antagonism and cannabinoid receptor deficient models reverse these anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation through monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amide hydrolase blockade can also attenuate colitis development, and is closely linked to cannabinoid receptor expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Although manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in murine colitis has proven to be largely beneficial in attenuating inflammation, there is a paucity of human study data. Further research is essential to clearly elucidate the specific mechanisms driving this anti-inflammatory effect for the development of therapeutics to target inflammatory disease such as IBD.

PMID: 28079617 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

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Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2016 Nov;12(11):668-679

Authors: Ahmed W, Katz S

Abstract
The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its derivatives, cannabinoids, have grown increasingly popular as a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, which regulates various functions in the body and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, has a therapeutic effect in mouse colitis. Epidemiologic data and human therapy studies reveal a possible role for cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of IBD, although it has yet to be determined in human populations whether cannabinoids have therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in IBD or are simply masking its many debilitating symptoms. Large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using serial inflammatory markers, biopsy findings, and endoscopic disease severity to demonstrate objective improvement in IBD are necessary before cannabis can be empirically accepted and recommended as an IBD treatment option. Questions concerning its safety profile and adverse effects prompt the need for further research, particularly in regard to dosing and route of administration to maximize benefits and limit potential harms. Cannabis use should be reserved for symptomatic control in patients with severe IBD refractory to the currently available standard-of-care and complementary and alternative medicines.

PMID: 28035196 [PubMed]

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