Category Archives: Antiinflamatorio

  • -

[Cannabis and lung. What we know and everything we don’t know yet].

Category : Antiinflamatorio

[Cannabis and lung. What we know and everything we don’t know yet].

Rev Pneumol Clin. 2017 Nov 07;:

Authors: Urban T, Hureaux J

Abstract
Cannabis use increased sharply from 2010 to 2014 in France. Cannabis is often consumed with tobacco, although the use of marijuana is developing. Tobacco and cannabis smoke have many common characteristics in terms of irritants, carcinogens and carbon monoxide. They also differentiate by their dependence mechanisms, with nicotine and its receptors for tobacco and tetra-hydro-cannabinol (THC) and its specific receptors for cannabis. Chronic inhalation (700,000 daily users in France) over a long period most likely increases the relative risk of bronchial cancer. But long-term cohort studies targeting this group of strong cannabis users, especially over time, are lacking. Inhalation of cannabis smoke, despite an acute bronchodilator effect, is associated with the risk of chronic bronchitis in the case of regular use. However, the risk of developing COPD in the exclusive marijuana smoker group with no associated tobacco is not yet clear, with studies yielding discordant results. There is also a lack of long-term follow-up studies of respiratory investigations in large cannabis users. Finally, cannabis smoke contains various cannabinoids, for example cannabidiol which also have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties, with the unconfirmed hypothesis that these properties can partially modulate the deleterious action of cannabis smoke.

PMID: 29126755 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cannabidiol Following Administration of PTL101: A New Formulation Based on Gelatin Matrix Pellets Technology.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cannabidiol Following Administration of PTL101: A New Formulation Based on Gelatin Matrix Pellets Technology.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2017 Nov 10;:

Authors: Atsmon J, Heffetz D, Deutsch L, Deutsch F, Sacks H

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main nonpsychoactive component of the cannabis plant. It has been associated with antiseizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and antipsychotic effects. PTL101 is an oral gelatin matrix pellets technology-based formulation containing highly purified CBD embedded in seamless gelatin matrix beadlets. Study objectives were to evaluate the safety and tolerability of PTL101 containing 10 and 100 mg CBD, following single administrations to healthy volunteers and to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles and relative bioavailability of CBD with Sativex oromucosal spray (the reference product) in a randomized, crossover study design. Administration of PTL101 containing 10 CBD, led to a 1.7-fold higher Cmax and 1.3-fold higher AUC compared with the oromucosal spray. Tmax following both modes of delivery was 3-3.5 hours postdosing. CBD exhibited about a 1-hour lag in absorption when delivered via PTL101. A 10-fold increase in the dose resulted in an ∼15-fold increase in Cmax and AUC. Bioavailability of CBD in the 10-mg PTL101 dose was 134% relative to the reference spray. PTL101 is a pharmaceutical-grade, user-friendly oral formulation that demonstrated safe and efficient delivery of CBD and therefore could be an attractive candidate for therapeutic indications.

PMID: 29125702 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):167-182

Authors: Nallathambi R, Mazuz M, Ion A, Selvaraj G, Weininger S, Fridlender M, Nasser A, Sagee O, Kumari P, Nemichenizer D, Mendelovitz M, Firstein N, Hanin O, Konikoff F, Kapulnik Y, Naftali T, Koltai H

Abstract
Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) include Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. However, C. sativa extracts contain hundreds of compounds. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. sativa extracts has never been characterized in detail with in vitro and ex vivo colon models. Material and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) present in fraction 7 (F7) of the extract. However, all fractions of C. sativa at a certain combination of concentrations have a significant increased cytotoxic activity. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT116 cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol (CBD) shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. Conclusions: It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts on colon epithelial cells derives from a fraction of the extract that contains THCA, and is mediated, at least partially, via GPR55 receptor. The cytotoxic activity of the C. sativa extract was increased by combining all fractions at a certain combination of concentrations and was partially affected by CB2 receptor antagonist that increased cell proliferation. It is suggested that in a nonpsychoactive treatment for IBD, THCA should be used rather than CBD.

PMID: 29082314 [PubMed]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

[Stress and psychotic transition: A literature review].

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

[Stress and psychotic transition: A literature review].

Encephale. 2016 Aug;42(4):367-73

Authors: Chaumette B, Kebir O, Mam Lam Fook C, Bourgin J, Godsil BP, Gaillard R, Jay TM, Krebs MO

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are consistent with the gene x environment model, and non-specific environmental factors such as childhood trauma, urbanity, and migration have been implicated. All of these factors have in common to dysregulate the biological pathways involved in response to stress. Stress is a well-known precipitating factor implicated in psychiatric disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and possibly schizophrenia. More precisely, psychosocial stress induces dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and could modify neurotransmission, which raises the question of the involvement of stress-related biological changes in psychotic disorders. Indeed, the literature reveals dysregulation of the HPA axis in schizophrenia. This dysregulation seems to be present in the prodromal phases (UHR subjects for ultra-high risk) and early schizophrenia (FEP for first episode psychosis). Thus, and following the stress-vulnerability model, stress could act directly on psychotic onset and precipitate the transition of vulnerable subjects to a full-blown psychosis.
OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews the literature on stress and onset of schizophrenia, with consideration for the causal role vs. associated role of HPA axis dysregulation in schizophrenia and the factors that influence it, in particular during prodromal and earlier phases. We also discuss different methods developed to measure stress in humans.
METHODOLOGY: We performed a bibliographic search using the keywords ‘cortisol’, ‘glucocorticoid’, ‘HPA’ with ‘UHR’, ‘CHR’, ‘at-risk mental state’, ‘first episode psychosis’, ‘schizotypal’, ‘prodromal schizophrenia’ in Medline, Web of Knowledge (WOS), and EBSCO completed by a screening of the references of the selected articles.
RESULTS: Stress has been studied for many years in schizophrenia, either by subjective methods (questionnaires), or objective methods (standardized experimental protocols) with biological sampling and/or brain imaging methods. These methods have suggested a link between dysregulation of the HPA axis and psychotic symptoms both through abnormal basal levels of cortisol and flattened reactivity to social stress. Imaging results suggest indirect modifications, including abnormal pituitary or hippocampal volume. Several factors dysregulating the HPA axis have also been highlighted, such as consumption of drugs (i.e. cannabis), childhood trauma or genetic factors (such as COMT, or MTHFR variants). Psychological stress induces subcortical dopaminergic activation attributable to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. This dysregulation is present in the prodromal phase (UHR) in patients who have experienced a first psychotic episode (FEP) and in siblings of schizophrenic patients. Stress dysregulation is a plausible hypothesis to understand the psychosis onset.
DISCUSSION: The effect of stress on brain pathways could participate to the mechanisms underlying the onset of psychotic symptoms, both as a precipitating factor and as a marker of a predisposing vulnerability. This dysregulation fits into the gene x environment model: in subjects with genetic predispositions, stressful environmental factors can modify biological pathways implicated in psychiatric disorders, promoting the emergence of symptoms. However, many confounding factors obscure the literature, and further studies are needed in schizophrenic patients, UHR and FEP patients to clarify the precise role of stress in psychotic transition. Identification of stress biomarkers could help diagnosis and prognosis, and pave the way for specific care strategies based on stress-targeted therapies.

PMID: 27161263 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;37(7):594-605

Authors: Russo EB

Abstract
Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review.

PMID: 27179600 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 03;75:94-105

Authors: Mori MA, Meyer E, Soares LM, Milani H, Guimarães FS, de Oliveira RM

Abstract
This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic phytochemical present in Cannabis sativa, on the cognitive and emotional impairments induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. Using a multi-tiered behavioral testing battery during 21days, we found that BCCAO mice exhibited long-lasting functional deficits reflected by increase in anxiety-like behavior (day 9), memory impairments (days 12-18) and despair-like behavior (day 21). Short-term CBD 10mg/kg treatment prevented the cognitive and emotional impairments, attenuated hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter (WM) injury, and reduced glial response that were induced by BCCAO. In addition, ischemic mice treated with CBD exhibited an increase in the hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. CBD also stimulated neurogenesis and promoted dendritic restructuring in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that short-term CBD treatment results in global functional recovery in ischemic mice and impacts multiple and distinct targets involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemic injury.

PMID: 27889412 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173911

Authors: Booth JK, Page JE, Bohlmann J

Abstract
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

PMID: 28355238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Evaluation of Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Cannabis Use Disorder.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Evaluation of Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Cannabis Use Disorder.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2017 Aug 31;15(3):237-242

Authors: Bayazit H, Selek S, Karababa IF, Cicek E, Aksoy N

Abstract
Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world and it has several adverse effects such as anxiety, panic reactions and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidant, anti-oxidant status and cytokine levels in individuals with cannabis use disorder.
Methods: Thirty-four patients with cannabis use disorder and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and cytokine levels were investigated in patients with cannabis use disorder and healthy controls.
Results: We found increased levels of total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in individuals with cannabis dependency compared to healthy people. When we compared total antioxidant status, IL-12, and interferon (IFN) γ levels, there were no differences in both groups. There was positive correlation between IL-6 and total oxidant status, oxidative stress index levels.
Conclusion: The oxidative balance of individuals with cannabis use disorder was impaired and they had higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and indicates increased inflammation compared to healthy controls. Thus, these findings suggest that cannabis increased inflammation and impaired the oxidative balance.

PMID: 28783932 [PubMed]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Endocannabinoids in arthritis: current views and perspective.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Endocannabinoids in arthritis: current views and perspective.

Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Jul;20(7):789-797

Authors: Barrie N, Kuruppu V, Manolios E, Ali M, Moghaddam M, Manolios N

Abstract
Preclinical and clinical studies using cannabis-based therapy have been shown to provide both analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects, with an overall alleviation of clinical symptoms in animal models of arthritis, highlighting its promising therapeutic application for humans. Despite this, the development of cannabis-based therapeutics remains in its infancy, with further investigation into its efficacy and safety profile in patients still required. This synopsis reviews the various components of the endocannabinoid system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets.

PMID: 28736968 [PubMed – in process]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Cannabis: an overview of its adverse acute and chronic effects and their implications.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Cannabis: an overview of its adverse acute and chronic effects and their implications.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2017 Jul 12;:

Authors: Ford TC, Hayley AC, Downey LA, Parrott AC

Abstract
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure. Although the cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have positive health outcomes with its antioxidant, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, high-potency cannabis is particularly damaging due to its high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), low CDB concentration. It is this high-potency substance that is readily available recreationally. While pharmaceutical initiatives continue to investigate the medical benefits of CDB, “medicinal cannabis” still contains damaging levels of THC. Altogether, we argue there is insufficient evidence to support the safety of cannabis and its subsequent legalisation for recreational use. Furthermore, its use for medicinal purposes should be done with care. We argue that the public conversation for the legalisation of cannabis must include scientific evidence for its adverse effects.

PMID: 28707583 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Powered by WPeMatico


Translate »