Category Archives: Antiinflamatorio

  • -

[Stress and psychotic transition: A literature review].

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

[Stress and psychotic transition: A literature review].

Encephale. 2016 Aug;42(4):367-73

Authors: Chaumette B, Kebir O, Mam Lam Fook C, Bourgin J, Godsil BP, Gaillard R, Jay TM, Krebs MO

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are consistent with the gene x environment model, and non-specific environmental factors such as childhood trauma, urbanity, and migration have been implicated. All of these factors have in common to dysregulate the biological pathways involved in response to stress. Stress is a well-known precipitating factor implicated in psychiatric disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and possibly schizophrenia. More precisely, psychosocial stress induces dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and could modify neurotransmission, which raises the question of the involvement of stress-related biological changes in psychotic disorders. Indeed, the literature reveals dysregulation of the HPA axis in schizophrenia. This dysregulation seems to be present in the prodromal phases (UHR subjects for ultra-high risk) and early schizophrenia (FEP for first episode psychosis). Thus, and following the stress-vulnerability model, stress could act directly on psychotic onset and precipitate the transition of vulnerable subjects to a full-blown psychosis.
OBJECTIVE: The present paper reviews the literature on stress and onset of schizophrenia, with consideration for the causal role vs. associated role of HPA axis dysregulation in schizophrenia and the factors that influence it, in particular during prodromal and earlier phases. We also discuss different methods developed to measure stress in humans.
METHODOLOGY: We performed a bibliographic search using the keywords ‘cortisol’, ‘glucocorticoid’, ‘HPA’ with ‘UHR’, ‘CHR’, ‘at-risk mental state’, ‘first episode psychosis’, ‘schizotypal’, ‘prodromal schizophrenia’ in Medline, Web of Knowledge (WOS), and EBSCO completed by a screening of the references of the selected articles.
RESULTS: Stress has been studied for many years in schizophrenia, either by subjective methods (questionnaires), or objective methods (standardized experimental protocols) with biological sampling and/or brain imaging methods. These methods have suggested a link between dysregulation of the HPA axis and psychotic symptoms both through abnormal basal levels of cortisol and flattened reactivity to social stress. Imaging results suggest indirect modifications, including abnormal pituitary or hippocampal volume. Several factors dysregulating the HPA axis have also been highlighted, such as consumption of drugs (i.e. cannabis), childhood trauma or genetic factors (such as COMT, or MTHFR variants). Psychological stress induces subcortical dopaminergic activation attributable to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. This dysregulation is present in the prodromal phase (UHR) in patients who have experienced a first psychotic episode (FEP) and in siblings of schizophrenic patients. Stress dysregulation is a plausible hypothesis to understand the psychosis onset.
DISCUSSION: The effect of stress on brain pathways could participate to the mechanisms underlying the onset of psychotic symptoms, both as a precipitating factor and as a marker of a predisposing vulnerability. This dysregulation fits into the gene x environment model: in subjects with genetic predispositions, stressful environmental factors can modify biological pathways implicated in psychiatric disorders, promoting the emergence of symptoms. However, many confounding factors obscure the literature, and further studies are needed in schizophrenic patients, UHR and FEP patients to clarify the precise role of stress in psychotic transition. Identification of stress biomarkers could help diagnosis and prognosis, and pave the way for specific care strategies based on stress-targeted therapies.

PMID: 27161263 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;37(7):594-605

Authors: Russo EB

Abstract
Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review.

PMID: 27179600 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 03;75:94-105

Authors: Mori MA, Meyer E, Soares LM, Milani H, Guimarães FS, de Oliveira RM

Abstract
This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic phytochemical present in Cannabis sativa, on the cognitive and emotional impairments induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. Using a multi-tiered behavioral testing battery during 21days, we found that BCCAO mice exhibited long-lasting functional deficits reflected by increase in anxiety-like behavior (day 9), memory impairments (days 12-18) and despair-like behavior (day 21). Short-term CBD 10mg/kg treatment prevented the cognitive and emotional impairments, attenuated hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter (WM) injury, and reduced glial response that were induced by BCCAO. In addition, ischemic mice treated with CBD exhibited an increase in the hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. CBD also stimulated neurogenesis and promoted dendritic restructuring in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that short-term CBD treatment results in global functional recovery in ischemic mice and impacts multiple and distinct targets involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemic injury.

PMID: 27889412 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173911

Authors: Booth JK, Page JE, Bohlmann J

Abstract
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

PMID: 28355238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Evaluation of Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Cannabis Use Disorder.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Evaluation of Oxidant/Antioxidant Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Cannabis Use Disorder.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2017 Aug 31;15(3):237-242

Authors: Bayazit H, Selek S, Karababa IF, Cicek E, Aksoy N

Abstract
Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug in the world and it has several adverse effects such as anxiety, panic reactions and psychotic symptoms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidant, anti-oxidant status and cytokine levels in individuals with cannabis use disorder.
Methods: Thirty-four patients with cannabis use disorder and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and cytokine levels were investigated in patients with cannabis use disorder and healthy controls.
Results: We found increased levels of total oxidant status, oxidative stress index and interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in individuals with cannabis dependency compared to healthy people. When we compared total antioxidant status, IL-12, and interferon (IFN) γ levels, there were no differences in both groups. There was positive correlation between IL-6 and total oxidant status, oxidative stress index levels.
Conclusion: The oxidative balance of individuals with cannabis use disorder was impaired and they had higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and indicates increased inflammation compared to healthy controls. Thus, these findings suggest that cannabis increased inflammation and impaired the oxidative balance.

PMID: 28783932 [PubMed]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Endocannabinoids in arthritis: current views and perspective.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Endocannabinoids in arthritis: current views and perspective.

Int J Rheum Dis. 2017 Jul;20(7):789-797

Authors: Barrie N, Kuruppu V, Manolios E, Ali M, Moghaddam M, Manolios N

Abstract
Preclinical and clinical studies using cannabis-based therapy have been shown to provide both analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects, with an overall alleviation of clinical symptoms in animal models of arthritis, highlighting its promising therapeutic application for humans. Despite this, the development of cannabis-based therapeutics remains in its infancy, with further investigation into its efficacy and safety profile in patients still required. This synopsis reviews the various components of the endocannabinoid system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets.

PMID: 28736968 [PubMed – in process]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Cannabis: an overview of its adverse acute and chronic effects and their implications.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Cannabis: an overview of its adverse acute and chronic effects and their implications.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2017 Jul 12;:

Authors: Ford TC, Hayley AC, Downey LA, Parrott AC

Abstract
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure. Although the cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have positive health outcomes with its antioxidant, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, high-potency cannabis is particularly damaging due to its high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), low CDB concentration. It is this high-potency substance that is readily available recreationally. While pharmaceutical initiatives continue to investigate the medical benefits of CDB, “medicinal cannabis” still contains damaging levels of THC. Altogether, we argue there is insufficient evidence to support the safety of cannabis and its subsequent legalisation for recreational use. Furthermore, its use for medicinal purposes should be done with care. We argue that the public conversation for the legalisation of cannabis must include scientific evidence for its adverse effects.

PMID: 28707583 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

An Overview on Medicinal Chemistry of Synthetic and Natural Derivatives of Cannabidiol.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

An Overview on Medicinal Chemistry of Synthetic and Natural Derivatives of Cannabidiol.

Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:422

Authors: Morales P, Reggio PH, Jagerovic N

Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) has been traditionally used in Cannabis-based preparation, however historically, it has received far less interest as a single drug than the other components of Cannabis. Currently, CBD generates considerable interest due to its beneficial neuroprotective, antiepileptic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the CBD scaffold becomes of increasing interest for medicinal chemists. This review provides an overview of the chemical structure of natural and synthetic CBD derivatives including the molecular targets associated with these compounds. A clear identification of their biological targets has been shown to be still very challenging.

PMID: 28701957 [PubMed]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Cannabidiol in Medical Marijuana: Research Vistas and Potential Opportunities.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Cannabidiol in Medical Marijuana: Research Vistas and Potential Opportunities.

Pharmacol Res. 2017 May 10;:

Authors: Rong C, Lee Y, Carmona NE, Cha DS, Ragguett RM, Rosenblat JD, Mansur RB, Ho RC, McIntyre RS

Abstract
The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects. The principle phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g. cognitive function) are distinct and in many cases opposite to that of Δ(9)-THC. Cannabidiol is without euphoriant properties, and exerts antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-seizure, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. It is essential to parcellate phytocannabinoids into their constituent moieties as the most abundant cannabinoid have differential effects on physiologic systems in psychopathology measures. Disparate findings and reports related to effects of cannabis consumption reflect differential relative concentration of Δ(9)-THC and CBD. Existing literature, notwithstanding its deficiencies, provides empirical support for the hypothesis that CBD may exert beneficial effects on brain effector systems/substrates subserving domain-based phenomenology. Interventional studies with purified CBD are warranted with a call to target-engagement proof-of-principle studies using the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework.

PMID: 28501518 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Powered by WPeMatico


  • -

Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis.

Category : Antiinflamatorio

Related Articles

Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis.

J Mol Graph Model. 2017 Apr 19;74:296-304

Authors: Zaka M, Sehgal SA, Shafique S, Abbasi BH

Abstract
From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is associated with RA pathway and has adverse effects. Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study (Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera) possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties. 13 anti-inflammatory compounds were characterized and filtered out from medicinal plant species and analyzed for RA by targeting TNF-α through in silico analyses. By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala-22, Glu-23, Ser-65, Gln-67, Tyr-141, Leu-142, Asp-143, Phe-144 and Ala-145 were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions. It is proposed that the RA patients should use reported compounds for the prescription of RA by targeting TNF-α. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA.

PMID: 28472734 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Powered by WPeMatico


Translate »