Treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: therapeutic trends, challenges and future directions.

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Treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: therapeutic trends, challenges and future directions.

Category : Epilepsia

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Treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: therapeutic trends, challenges and future directions.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:1131-1140

Authors: Ostendorf AP, Ng YT

Abstract
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe, childhood-onset electroclinical syndrome comprised of multiple seizure types, intellectual and behavioral disturbances and characteristic findings on electroencephalogram of slow spike and wave complexes and paroxysmal fast frequency activity. Profound morbidity often accompanies a common and severe seizure type, the drop attack. Seizures often remain refractory, or initial treatment efficacy fades. Few individuals are seizure free despite the development of multiple generations of antiseizure medications over decades and high-level evidence on several choices. Approved medications such as lamotrigine, topiramate, rufinamide, felbamate and clobazam have demonstrated efficacy in reducing seizure burden. Cannabidiol has emerged as a promising investigational therapy with vast social interest yet lacks a standard, approved formulation. Palliative surgical procedures, such as vagal nerve stimulation and corpus callosotomy may provide reduction in total seizures and drop attacks. Emerging evidence suggests that complete callosotomy provides greater improvement in seizures without additional side effects. Etiologies such as dysplasia or hypothalamic hamartoma may be amenable for focal resection and thus offer potential to reverse this devastating epileptic encephalopathy.

PMID: 28461749 [PubMed – in process]

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